Category Archives: Medical

Enlightenment and skin bleaching are two different things


Enlightening further illustrate the health and vitality of the skin thoroughly, skin looks healthy, radiant, not dry and dull and bright look.

while BLEACHING more a matter of depigmentation pigments associated with the type of one’s skin color, by that we must be able to differentiate a product which one serves as a lightening / enlightenment and which serves as whitening / bleaching whitening products injection there are plenty of brands of products, content and the function of each – each, but if we can merge with the right, we will get the maximum results.

Lightening and whitening injection can make skin brighter, shinier and brighter. There are also an effective injection Placenta whiten the skin, and nourishes the skin to look younger, materials are classified as a food supplement belonging to a powerful antioxidant.
As a food supplement will not give any negative effect. This will make the skin can work up to encourage the regeneration and revitalization of the condition. A solution of anti-aging and skin regeneration in it is effective against the two types of premature aging is caused by genetic factors and external factors outside the body such as exposure to sun and pollution. Vitamins, cytokines, peptides and mineral co enzymes, anti-oxidants contained therein synergistically to help skin produce collagen and improve skin elasticity optimally.

HOW TO WORK FROM Lightening / whitening injection:

Treatment was shown to inhibit the enzyme tyrosinase that make the pigment melanin (the cause of the skin becomes dark), so before more inhibited formed first with the best vitamin that new skin cells grow healthier. The skin becomes brighter, whiter color is translucent, luminous, and for maximum results, use a mixture of beautiful sparkling whites. With the additional care from the outside (including injection) results will be maximized.

But to get the skin completely white clear, luminous and sparkling beautiful, actually not quite with vitamin c, tationil, placenta, etc. should be added also to the care of the body from the outside using ingredients such high quality lotions that contain bleach, scrub bleach etc

There are some customers that have done injections of vitamin c + collagen / whitening injection did not feel significant changes as they expect? Why is that??

Caucasian adults generally have poor blood circulation. Now there is a revolutionary treatment based whitening injection of oxygen. Use active oxygen solution and the solution Skin regeneration. This treatment will foster and stimulate skin. These alloys can improve oxygen in the blood vessels so that the skin becomes more transparent luminous, pure oxygen and other materials used in this treatment will provide freshness as well as accelerate the process of skin whitening

This will make the skin can work up to encourage the regeneration and revitalization of the condition. A solution of anti-aging and skin regeneration in it is effective against the two types of premature aging is caused by genetic factors and factors outside the body external from such as exposure to sun and pollution

nah therefore results and the rapid reaction of the individual depends on the type masing2 individual skin and the level of darkness, there is a slow there quick, if you include the slow or dark then needed treatment oxy glow and cocktail right if you want to get the white skin shines not only a bright, inject able vitamin c + collagen only serves as a lightening or only used as a whitening maintenance after injection, but a lot of benefits that you get from just injecting vitamin c.

For those of you who intend to perform injections of vitamin C helps you know about the benefits of Vitamin C Injection and effects that follow the injection of vitamin c.

in order to obtain optimal results and effects as well as keeping of things that are going to hurt ourselves.

The following fact.
• Perform Injectable vitamin C provides high enough levels in the blood, but the amount will be absorbed into the various organs and only partially to the skin, so that its effectiveness can vary from person to person.

• To get the most out of the skin, acts injections of vitamin C is often used as adjunctive therapy of other skin treatments. As for the care and rejuvenation of the skin to keep it supple and smooth, until now that is capable of delivering maximum results is a topical therapy (therapy from the outside as well as the provision of a skin cream morning and night).

• Adequate need for vitamin C can be done with the direct consume fruits, injections, and supplements. All three have advantages and disadvantages of each. Through injections of vitamin C the body can obtain high doses directly into the blood. However, not all that high doses of vitamin C to be absorbed by the body. The rest will remain wasted through urine. In contrast, although the dose is not high, by consuming food or fruits rich in vitamin C, the body get the vitamins and other nutrients (such as vitamins E and A) to strengthen the work of vitamin C. Vitamin C supplementation is preferably given in combination with vitamins and other nutrients.

• Before you perform injections of vitamin C, you should make sure that the patient’s kidney and liver function is normal, and no history of allergy to the vitamin. Kidney and liver function is very influential on the absorption of vitamin C.

• Schedule Injectable vitamin C at a dose of 2-5 grams via intravenous (vein), can be done once a week or at longer intervals (depending on the doctor’s judgment). There is no specific benchmark, whether the package needs to be done or not, it will be the needs and indications.
The result of the injection of vitamin C will vary for each individual. Therapy should be discontinued if side effects appear or if the results are not significant enough. The effectiveness of therapy can be seen on the skin firmer, supple, and bright after getting this therapy within a certain time.

For individual results in the treatment of this whitening injection can be different even with the same product.
This can happen because many factors that influence it, either because the product is not good, the product is not suitable, unhealthy life patterns, often exposed to the sun, genetics etc.
Humans are not machines, medical science is not mathematics 1 + 1 = 2. It should be remembered

To get good results do not always need an expensive cost
But then this name is also spelled humanity expensiveness considering the price, there’s arguably false price, at bargain anyway anymore.

• Vitamin C is quite safe to be used by most people. If any, complaints that usually arise are diarrhea and bloating. Concerns that administration of high doses of vitamin C can cause kidney stones and was irrelevant because a lot of the scientific report. Treatment with vitamin C does not cause the formation of kidney stones. Even the provision of up to 10 grams per day did not show signs of kidney stone formation.
However, after an injection of high doses of vitamin C, a person is recommended to drink a lot. Please note, the presence of high doses of vitamin C in the body can interfere with the absorption of other nutrients, such as selenium (a mineral elements essential to the body), and copper (an enzyme important for the absorption of iron), so that the body also need to obtain additional supplements zat- the nutritional substances to cope.


Administration of drugs carried by infusion or by intravenous infusion therapy

Administration of drugs by injection either intravenously or IM

Actually there is no difference between them is only just a different way of administration is not much different infusion effectiveness dg injection is only a matter of administration are different. because obat2an in use together, the difference, if usually injected directly, is dissolved in a liquid infusion and administered in the form of drip / drip
but because of the same drug in use, the effectiveness of more or less the same

advantage infusion itself is safer in view of allergic reactions (if they occur in a particular person, although rarely)


1. Injection Oxy skin lightening plus:

makes the skin look fresher, brighter and radiant. Lightening formula containing powerful double anti oxidant, collagen and skin fasteners and some minerals the body needs is also efficacious as a free-radical scavengers and brighten dull skin significantly


brighten again at once whitens skin color. results ivory white skin, brighten the whole body and makes it clear luminous. Those advantages are not just taking care of AESTHETIC but also include the content of the master anti-oxidant Plus that works to stimulate the body condition more healthy and fresh as well as slowing the aging.


For the benar2 white skin (like japanese people) use this therapy in 2 weeks … These injections are not just regular injections. Live cells were mixed with whitening agents, bilobine G, glutamide acid, glycine, and cysteine ​​and basic vitamins A, C, E and selenium contained in it is very good for heart health, brain and blood vessels. Works by blocking the spread of melanocytes that causes depigmentation problems, and create new skin cells grow fresh white and sparkling .

In short this injection is also a progressive pro-active action to a white appearance is really white and sparkling.

Source :

Drug abuse and Drug addiction requires proper treatment


Abuse of drugs and narcotics can occur  every where. And become more severe citing of all ages. Drug trafficking occurs in the family, at work and school, and in the community. Below describes the handling of drug abuse in the US, but can be applied anywhere. Remember that narcotics and other illegal drugs can damage the generations to come, and is a threat to all countries

Drug addiction is a complex disorder that can involve virtually every aspect of an individual’s functioning—in the family, at work and school, and in the community.

Because of addiction’s complexity and pervasive consequences, drug addiction treatment typically must involve many components. Some of those components focus directly on the individual’s drug use; others, like employment training, focus on restoring the addicted individual to productive membership in the family and society (See diagram “Components of Comprehensive Drug Abuse Treatment”), enabling him or her to experience the rewards associated with abstinence.

Treatment for drug abuse and addiction is delivered in many different settings using a variety of behavioral and pharmacological approaches. In the United States, more than 14,500 specialized drug treatment facilities provide counseling, behavioral therapy, medication, case management, and other types of services to persons with substance use disorders.

Along with specialized drug treatment facilities, drug abuse and addiction are treated in physicians’ offices and mental health clinics by a variety of providers, including counselors, physicians, psychiatrists, psychologists, nurses, and social workers. Treatment is delivered in outpatient, inpatient, and residential settings. Although specific treatment approaches often are associated with particular treatment settings, a variety of therapeutic interventions or services can be included in any given setting.

Because drug abuse and addiction are major public health problems, a large portion of drug treatment is funded by local, State, and Federal governments. Private and employer-subsidized health plans also may provide coverage for treatment of addiction and its medical consequences. Unfortunately, managed care has resulted in shorter average stays, while a historical lack of or insufficient coverage for substance abuse treatment has curtailed the number of operational programs. The recent passage of parity for insurance coverage of mental health and substance abuse problems will hopefully improve this state of affairs. Health Care Reform (i.e., the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act of 2010, “ACA”) also stands to increase the demand for drug abuse treatment services and presents an opportunity to study how innovations in service delivery, organization, and financing can improve access to and use of them.

source :

Differences dose of sleeping pills and the effects caused


This article may be long time ago, but hopefully still be helpful to the reader about the use of sleeping pills. Food and Drug Administration has evaluated the use of sleeping pills in order to determine the extent of the impact of the use of sleeping pills for the customer, and here are the results. Blood tests uncovered a gender gap: Men metabolized the drug, Intermezzo, faster than women. Ultimately the F.D.A. approved a 3.5 milligram pill for men, and a 1.75 milligram pill for women.

The active ingredient in Intermezzo, zolpidem, is used in many other sleeping aids, including Ambien. But it wasn’t until earlier this month that the F.D.A. reduced doses of Ambien for women by half.

Sleeping pills are hardly the only medications that may have unexpected, even dangerous, effects in women. Studies have shown that women respond differently than men to many drugs, from aspirin to anesthesia. Researchers are only beginning to understand the scope of the issue, but many believe that as a result, women experience a disproportionate share of adverse, often more severe, side effects.

“This is not just about Ambien — that’s just the tip of the iceberg,” said Dr. Janine Clayton, director for the Office of Research on Women’s Health at the National Institutes of Health. “There are a lot of sex differences for a lot of drugs, some of which are well known and some that are not well recognized.”

Until 1993, women of childbearing age were routinely excluded from trials of new drugs. When the F.D.A. lifted the ban that year, agency researchers noted that because landmark studies on aspirin in heart disease and stroke had not included women, the scientific community was left “with doubts about whether aspirin was, in fact, effective in women for these indications.”

Because so many drugs were tested mostly or exclusively in men, scientists may know little of their effects on women until they reach the market. A Government Accountability Office study found that 8 of 10 drugs removed from the market from 1997 through 2000 posed greater health risks to women.

For example, Seldane, an antihistamine, and the gastrointestinal drug Propulsid both triggered a potentially fatal heart arrhythmia more often in women than in men. Many drugs still on the market cause this arrhythmia more often in women, including antibiotics, antipsychotics, anti-malarial drugs and cholesterol-lowering drugs, Dr. Clayton said. Women also tend to use more medications than men.

The sex differences cut both ways. Some drugs, like the high blood pressure drug Verapamil and the antibiotic erythromycin, appear to be more effective in women. On the other hand, women tend to wake up from anesthesia faster than men and are more likely to experience side effects from anesthetic drugs, according to the Society for Women’s Health Research.

Women also react differently to alcohol, tobacco and cocaine, studies have found.

It’s not just because women tend to be smaller than men. Women metabolize drugs differently because they have a higher percentage of body fat and experience hormonal fluctuations and the monthly menstrual cycle. “Some drugs are more water-based and like to hang out in the blood, and some like to hang out in the fat tissue,” said Wesley Lindsey, assistant professor of pharmacy practice at Auburn University, who is a co-author of a paper on sex-based differences in drug activity.

“If the drug is lipophilic” — attracted to fat cells — “it will move into those tissues and hang around for longer,” Dr. Lindsey added. “The body won’t clear it as quickly, and you’ll see effects longer.”

There are also sex differences in liver metabolism, kidney function and certain gastric enzymes. Oral contraceptives, menopause and post-menopausal hormone treatment further complicate the picture. Some studies suggest, for example, that when estrogen levels are low, women may need higher doses of drugs called angiotensin receptor blockers to lower blood pressure, because they have higher levels of proteins that cause the blood vessels to constrict, said Kathryn Sandberg, director of the Center for the Study of Sex Differences in Health, Aging and Disease at Georgetown.

Many researchers say data on these sex differences must be gathered at the very beginning of a drug’s development — even before trials on human subjects begin.

“The path to a new drug starts with the basic science — you study an animal model of the disease, and that’s where you discover a drug target,” Dr. Sandberg said. “But 90 percent of researchers are still studying male animal models of the disease.”

There have been improvements. In an interview, Dr. Robert Temple, with the Center for Drug Evaluation and Research at the F.D.A., said the agency’s new guidelines in 1993 called for studies of sex differences at the earliest stages of drug development, as well as for analysis of clinical trial data by sex.

He said early research on an irritable bowel syndrome drug, alosetron (Lotronex), suggested it would not be effective in men. As a result, only women were included in clinical trials, and it was approved only for women. (Its use is restricted now because of serious side effects.)

But some scientists say drug metabolism studies with only 10 or 15 subjects are too small to pick up sex differences. Even though more women participate in clinical trials than in the past, they are still underrepresented in trials for heart and kidney disease, according to one recent analysis, and even in cancer trials.

“The big problem is we’re not quite sure how much difference this makes,” Dr. Lindsey said. “We just don’t have a good handle on it.”


Source :

Why and How to Identify Medication


Medical Author: Omudhome Ogbru, PharmD
Medical and Pharmacy Editor:Jay W. Marks, MD
Source :

Pharmacists and other health care professionals are diligent about ensuring that patients receive the correct medication. However, they are human, and once in a while they make mistakes. The doctor may prescribe the wrong dose or the wrong medication. Pharmacy staff may misinterpret the prescription or the wrong medication may be dispensed. There are several checks and balances to minimize medication errors, but sometimes the checks and balances fail. Medication errors can cause serious consequences.

What should you, the prudent consumer do to protect yourself? You should make sure that you have the correct medication. Before the Internet age, pill identification was accomplished by calling a pharmacy or using pill identification books at the local library or bookstore. The Internet has made it possible for anyone to use pill identifiers (pill finder), such as the Rxlist Pill Identifier, to ensure that they have the correct medication. You can identify drugs by imprint, color, shape, and brand or generic name. If you do not find a match, you should call your pharmacist. Some generic drugs are manufactured by several manufacturers, and pill identification databases may not have images of all the generic versions.

For pill identifiers to be valuable, you have to know the medication and strength you should have received. Therefore, start by understanding your condition and the medication and dose your doctor has prescribed for you. Using pill identifiers and knowing what medications your doctor has prescribed will prevent you from taking the wrong medication. Pharmacists are no longer the last line of defense against medication errors; consumers are.

Find a picture of your pill using the RxList Pill Identifier Tool. We’ve also provided Pill Identifier examples of commonly abused drugs and popular medications.

Below is a list of commonly searched medications, visit find and read patient information on this drug, see pictures of the different pills prescribed, understand the potential side effects, how to take the medication, and what to do if you miss a dose.

Ultram (tramadol)
Xanax (alprazolam)
Percocet (acetaminophen and oxycodone)
Vicodin (acetaminophen and hydrocodone)
Amoxil (amoxicillin)
Prinivil (lisinopril)
Accutane (isotretinoin)
Deltasone (prednisone)
Percocet (oxycodone)
Neurontin (gabapentin)
Adderall (amphetamine and dextroamphetamine)
Ambien (zolpidem)
Glucophage (metformin)
Valium (diazepam)
Ativan (lorazepam)

REFERENCE: U.S. Food and Drug Administration

To Know medical terms Homeopathic and NanoPharmacology


Has the reader heard the term Nano Homeopathic and Pharmacology, in this article will discuss both, the information retrieved from the site May be useful

By Dana Ullman MPH


Western science has been marching towards the discovery of increasingly smaller particles of matter for the past centuries, from molecules and atoms to sub-atomic particles and quarks.

Likewise, the evolution of technology has witnessed the miniaturisation of devices along with their increased capabilities. “Nanotechnology” has become the popular term to refer to the study and manufacture of devices of molecular dimensions, of the range of nanometers or one-billionth of a meter.

Dr. Neal Lane, former director of the US National Science Foundation (NSF) said, “If I were asked for an area of science and engineering that will most likely produce the breakthrough of tomorrow, I would point to nanoscale science and engineering.”

A 1999 report from NSF Technology Council predicted that nanotechnology’s impact on the health, wealth, and security of the world’s population is expected to be “at least as significant as the combined influences of antibiotics, the integrated circuit, and human-made polymers”.

So far, research and development in nanotechnology in medicine have been limited to devices that monitor or replace biochemical processes in the body. But as yet, conventional scientists and physicians have not considered using nanopharmacological doses of medicinal agents.

Our conventional medical paradigm has tended to assume that increasingly large doses of pharmacological agents will create increasingly significant biological effects, even when it is well recognized that large doses of pharmacological agents do not necessarily lead to better or improved health.

In fact, increasing doses of most drugs generally lead to increased side effects. Most drugs have primarily been developed to replace, suppress, minimize, or interfere with specific biochemical function, while the discovery of pharmaceutical medicines to augment a person’s own immune and defence system has been an elusive and usually ignored goal.

Ironically, the few pharmacological agents that have been used in conventional medicine today that do something to augment a persons immune system are immunization and allergy treatments, both of which are based on an ancient (and modern) pharmacological principle of “similars.” (Although there are obvious similarities between these conventional medical treatments and homeopathic medicines, there are also significant differences, including: the homeopathic medicines are considerably smaller in dose and are individualized to the person’s total syndrome of symptoms, not simply to a localized or defined disease.) This concept of similars, that is, of using a medicinal agent in small doses based on what it causes in larger, toxic doses, represents the underlying principle of homeopathic medicine.

Largely as a result of the AIDS epidemic, it has made sense to seek to discover drugs that strengthen a person’s immune and defence system rather than seek to minimize the various individual symptoms that a person experiences. However, most physicians and scientists lack a conceptual framework for pharmacological agents that have this effect. And sadly, most are also ignorant and disdainful of homeopathy, which they commonly but incorrectly assume, uses such small doses that the medicines cannot have any biochemical let alone clinical effect.

Nanopharmacology and Homeopathy

While this skepticism of the efficacy of small doses of medicine is understandable from a strictly rational perspective, it ignores the large body of evidence from basic science, controlled clinical studies, epidemiological data, clinical outcomes trials, and historical review of the field.

Before discussing this evidence, it is useful to understand that homeopaths are the first to recognize that their medicines will not have any biological effect or clinical result unless the complex of symptoms that the sick person experiences are similar to the complex of symptoms that the medicine has been found to cause when given in toxic doses. It is not as though small doses of simply any medicine will elicit therapeutic results; such small doses can and will only initiate a healing response when a person is hypersensitive to a specific medicine.

Basic principles of physics teach us that hypersensitivity exists when there is resonance. Homeopathy is itself based on resonance (commonly referred to as the “principle of similars”). Even the word “homeopathy” is derived from two Greek words, “homoios” which means similar, and “pathos” which means suffering or disease.

Typically, homeopaths engage patients in a detailed interview to elicit the various physical, emotional, and mental symptoms that the sick person is experiencing. Homeopaths seek to find a medicinal agent that has the capacity to cause in healthy people the similar symptoms that the sick patient is experiencing. Rather than treating localized symptoms or a specific disease, homeopaths treat syndrome complexes, of which the symptoms and the disease are a part. Once a conventional medical diagnosis is determined, the homeopath then seeks to find the symptoms that are unique to the patient, and then, a homeopathic medicine is individualized to each patient’s symptom complex.

Homeopathic Medicine: A Nanopharmacology

Homeopathic medicine presents a significantly different pharmacological approach to treating sick people. Instead of using strong and powerful doses of medicinal agents that have a broad-spectrum effect on a wide variety of people with a similar disease, homeopaths use extremely small doses of medicinal substances that are highly individualized to a person’s physical and psychological syndrome of disease, not simply an assumed localized pathology.

Homeopathic medicines are so small in dose that it is appropriate to refer to them as a part of a newly defined field of nanopharmacology. To understand the nature and the degree of homeopathy’s nanopharmacology, it is important to know the following characteristics of how homeopathic medicines are made.

Most homeopathic medicines are made by diluting a medicinal substance in a double-distilled water. It should be noted that physicists who study the properties of water commonly acknowledge that water has many mysterious properties. Because homeopaths use a double-distilled water, it is highly purified, enabling the medicinal substance to solely infiltrate the water. The medicinal solution is usually preserved in an 87% water/alcohol solution. Each substance is diluted, most commonly, 1 part of the original medicinal agent to 9 or 99 parts double-distilled water. The mixture is then vigorously stirred or shaken. The solution is then diluted again 1:9 or 1:99 and vigorously stirred. This process of diluting and stirring is repeated 3, 6, 12, 30, 200, 1,000, or even 1,000,000 times.

It is inaccurate to say that homeopathic medicines are just extremely diluted; they are extremely “potentized.” Potentization refers to the specific process of sequential dilution with vigorous stirring. The theory is that each consecutive dilution in conjunction with the process of shaking/stirring infiltrates the new double-distilled water and imprints upon it the fractal form of the original substance used (fractal refers to the specific consecutively smaller pattern or form within a larger pattern).

Some highly respected basic scientific research has begun to verify the claims that homeopaths have made for 200 years, and that various extremely low concentrations of biological agents can exhibit powerful biochemical effects. Beta-endorphins are known to modulate natural killer cell activity in dilutions of 10-18. Interleukin-1, an important agent in our immune system, has been found to increase T-cell clone proliferation at 10-19. And pheromones, which are externally emitted hormones that various animals and insects are known to create, will result in hypersensitive reaction when as little as a single molecule is received (scientists have no way at present to assess the effects of less than a molecule).

It is commonly observed that organisms experience a biphasic response to various chemicals, that is, extremely small doses of a substance exhibit different and sometimes opposite effects than what they cause in high concentrations. For instance, it is widely recognized that normal medical doses of atropine block the parasympathetic nerves, causing mucous membranes to dry up, while exceedingly small doses of atropine causes increased secretions to mucous membranes.

In fact, many medical and scientific dictionaries refer to “hormesis” or “the Arndt-Schulz law” (listed under “law”) as the observations that weak concentrations of biological agents stimulate physiological activity, medium concentrations of agents depress physiological activity, and large concentrations halt physiological activity.

There is also a significant body of research on hormesis (hundreds of studies) conducted by conventional scientists, none of whom even mention homeopathy. The journal, Health Physics devoted an entire issue to this subject in May, 1987.

Despite this body of research on hormesis, none of it was devoted to investigating the ultra-molecular doses used in some homeopathic medicines. What is interesting to note is that researchers find that the hormetic effects of small doses only seems to influence biological systems when there is repeated dosages of the noxious (or medicinal) agent, while homeopathic clinicians find that the even smaller homeopathic doses have longer lasting effects, and do not require repetition of dosages.

The Clinical Evidence

Homeopathy first became popular in Europe and the United States primarily because of the astounding successes it had in treating people during various infectious disease epidemics in the 19th century. The death rates in the homeopathic hospitals from cholera, scarlet fever, typhoid, yellow fever, pneumonia, and others was typically one-half to even one-eighth that in conventional medical hospitals.

Similarly results were also observed in mental institutions and prisons under the care of homeopathic physicians as compared to those under the care of conventional doctors.

A group of researchers at the University of Glasgow and Glasgow Homeopathic Hospital conducted four studies on people suffering from various respiratory allergies (hay fever, asthma, and perennial allergic rhinitis). In total, they treated 253 patients and found a 28% improvement in visual analogue scores in those given a homeopathic medicine, as compared with a 3% improvement in patients given a placebo. (The result was significant at P = 0.0007.).

In the hay fever study, homeopathic doses of various flowers that are known to create pollen that initiates hay fever symptoms were used, and in the other studies, the researchers conducted conventional allergy testing to assess what substance each person was most allergic to. The researchers then prescribed the 30C (100-30) of this allergic substance (House dust mite 30C was the most commonly prescribed homeopathic medicine).

The researchers called this type of prescribing “homeopathic immunotherapy,” and they conclude from their research that either homeopathic medicines work or controlled clinical trials do not.

Technically, this research may be more precisely called “isopathy” because the medicines used were not the “similar” but the “same” (“iso”) substance that was known to cause the specific symptoms of illness. However, the medicines were made in the typical homeopathic pharmacological process, and legally recognized homeopathic medicines were used in these trials.

In addition to this body of clinical evidence, an independent group of physicians and scientists evaluated clinical research prior to October, 1995. They reviewed 186 studies, 89 of which met their pre-defined criteria for their meta-analysis. They found that on average patients given a homeopathic medicine were 2.45 times more likely to have experienced a clinically beneficial effect. When reviewing only the highest quality studies and when adjusting for publication bias, the researchers found that subjects given a homeopathic medicine were still 1.86 times more likely to experience improved health as compared with those given a placebo. The researchers have also noted that it is extremely common in conventional medical research for more rigorous trials to yield less positive results than less rigorous trials.

The most important question that good scientists pose about clinical research (whether it deals with homeopathy or not) is: have there been replications of clinical studies by independent researchers?

Three separate bodies of researchers have conducted clinical trials in the use of a homeopathic medicine (Oscillococcinum 200C) in the treatment of influenza-like syndromes. Each of these trials involved relatively large numbers of subjects (487, 300, and 372), and all were multi-centered placebo-controlled and double-blinded (two of the three trials were also randomized). Each of these trials showed statistically significant results.

One other body of research in the use of Galphimia glauca in the treatment of hay fever was replicated successfully seven times, but this research was conducted by the same group of researchers, and thus far, not by any other researchers.

It would be inaccurate and biased to report only on studies that have shown positive results with homeopathic medicines. There are numerous clinical trials that have shown patients given a homeopathic medicine didn’t experience beneficial results. The meta-analysis described earlier verifies this, but it also suggests that the weight of evidence still suggests that homeopathy is more than just a placebo effect.

How does homeopathy work?

How homeopathic medicines work is presently a mystery. And yet, nature is replete with striking examples of the powerful effects of extremely small doses of active agents.

It is commonly known that certain species of moths can smell pheromones of its own species up to two miles away. Likewise, sharks are known to sense blood in the water at large distances.

I stress again that nanopharmacological doses will not have any effect unless the person is hypersensitive to the specific medicinal substance. Hypersensitivity is created when there is some type of resonance between the medicine and the person. Because the system of homeopathy bases its selection of the medicine on its ability to cause in overdose the similar symptoms that the sick person is experiencing, homeopathy’s “law of similars,” as it is called, is simply a practical method of finding the substance to which a person is hypersensitive.

The homeopathic principle of similars makes further sense when one considers that physiologists and pathologists now recognize that disease is not simply the result of breakdown or surrender of the body but that symptoms are instead representative of the body’s efforts to fight infection or adapt to stress. Fever, inflammation, pain, discharge, and even high blood pressure are but a small number of the common symptoms that the organism creates in order to defend and to try to heal itself.

Over 200 years of experience by homeopathic physicians hav found that a homeopathic medicine acts longer and deeper when it is more potentized. Although no one knows precisely why this happens, it is conjectured that highly potentized nanopharmacological doses can more deeply penetrate cells and the blood-brain barrier than less potentized medicines. Although there is no consensus on why these ultramolecular doses work more deeply, there is consensus from users of these natural medicines that they do.

One cannot help but sense the potential treasure-trove of knowledge that further research in homeopathy and nanopharmacology will bring in this new millennium.

Dana Ullman, M.P.H. has written seven books, the latest, Homeopathic Family Medicine, reviews and describes the various clinical trials using homeopathic medicines to treat common acute and chronic ailments (see He has served as an advisor in alternative medicine institutes at Harvard, Columbia, and University of Arizona schools of medicine, and has developed the curriculum in homeopathy for the University of Arizona’s Program in Integrative Medicine.

How to choose an online drug store is trustworthy


Maybe you can imitate how the American people in choosing an online drugstore. Indeed, in the international regulation of pharmacy no guarantee of security and legal certainty to these online drug stores. But at least there are some online drug store can be trusted and you just have to know how to find them. Here’s what to know to do just that.

1. What an online pharmacy is

Online pharmacies are Internet-based vendors of prescription drugs. Because they can serve a large clientele from one central location — and avoid the cost of operating brick-and-mortar branches — they can sell medications more cheaply than traditional pharmacies.

In many cases, foreign online pharmacies can sell drugs for even less than domestic ones. Price caps that many countries place on drugs help drive down the costs.

2. Not every online pharmacy is the same

There are thousands of online pharmacies. Many are legal and legitimate, but many aren’t.

In many cases, illegitimate pharmacies don’t operate in compliance with U.S. rules and regulations. These pharmacies are considered fraudulent, and most of them are based in other countries, or claim to be. For example, many popular pharmacies operate out of Mexico and India, where medications are particularly inexpensive, but these countries don’t have medication quality and security guidelines as stringent as in the U.S. and Canada.

Fraudulent pharmacies have multiple ways of deceiving consumers. Some might send a non-U.S. version of your drug, an incorrect dosage or a generic when your doctor has prescribed a brand name. In other cases, you might receive the incorrect medication or a sugar pill without any active ingredients. You might also receive a medication with an incomplete or missing label, making it difficult to tell drugs apart or how to take them.

3. What the FDA says about foreign online pharmacies

No law explicitly forbids importing prescription drugs from other countries, so long as they aren’t controlled substances and are purchased with the approval of a licensed physician. Even so, the FDA recommends against buying drugs from other countries because consumers can’t confirm their safety and have no recourse against the manufacturers.

4. What is definitely legal

It’s definitely legal to purchase drugs through a U.S.-based online pharmacy that has been certified by the National Association of Boards of Pharmacy. The association is a professional organization that supports state pharmacy boards and is recognized by the FDA as the nation’s leading pharmacy authority.

Some online pharmacies aren’t verified by the association, but are verified by independently owned LegitScript. LegitScript approves only U.S.-based online pharmacies, and is acknowledged by the boards of pharmacy association for recognizing safe practices and complying with federal law. Unlike the association, however, LegitScript doesn’t require a fee or application from pharmacies for verification.

5. What is definitely illegal

It is illegal to do the following:

– Purchase controlled substances without a prescription written by a licensed doctor. This includes all prescription narcotic painkillers, sedatives, stimulants and anabolic steroids.
– Purchase prescription drugs that aren’t FDA approved, even if they’re legal in the country from which you purchase them.

If you can want to buy from a foreign pharmacy, you’ll also be held to that country’s laws. In order to legally purchase a controlled medicine from a Mexican online pharmacy, for example, you’ll need a prescription from a licensed Mexican physician in addition to the prescription from your local doctor.

6. How Canadian online pharmacies are different

Canadian pharmacy practices and standards are similar to those in the U.S. Legitimate Canadian pharmacies don’t require a separate Canadian prescription and avoid selling controlled substances to U.S. patients in order to comply with our laws. However, the FDA reports that many online pharmacies that appear Canadian are actually operating out of other countries.

True Canadian pharmacies are certified by the Canadian International Pharmacy Association, but they can’t be verified by U.S. pharmacy bodies. Even though research has shown that legitimate Canadian pharmacies sell legitimate drugs at cheaper prices, the FDA still advises against these purchases.

7. What the research says about online pharmacies

Two major studies have assessed online pharmacies. The most recent, conducted by the boards of pharmacy association in September 2013, found that 96.7% of online pharmacies selling to U.S. citizens were “rogue,” meaning that they didn’t comply with U.S. laws and regulations. The report covered 10,642 pharmacies, and determined that only 90 were legitimate, while another 258 were classified as potentially legitimate.

The National Bureau of Economic Research did a more comprehensive study in 2012. To assess drug cost and integrity, researchers acquired samples of the most popular dosages of five common brand name prescription drugs  — Lipitor, Viagra, Celebrex, Nexium and Zoloft — from a variety of online pharmacies. Researchers concluded that:

– All of the U.S. pharmacies required a process that ensures the prescription is authentic, compared with 90% of Canadian pharmacies and 67% of foreign pharmacies.
– 10% of the drugs provided were incorrect, or generic when a name brand was prescribed.
– Although there are many rogue pharmacies online, a blanket ban against certified Canadian pharmacies is unjustified and would prevent considerable savings for consumers, since Canadian drugs are 49% cheaper than those bought in the U.S.

8. Guidelines for safely purchasing drugs online

Use these guidelines to ensure your safety and the security of your personal information when buying medications online:

– Look for pharmacies that are certified by the U.S. or Canadian pharmacy association, indicating that they follow stringent safety and quality standards.
– Cross-check your pharmacy’s certification against the associations’ websites.
– Don’t buy from websites that sell drugs without a prescription, or that offer to prescribe the drug for you.
– Make sure your online pharmacy’s privacy and security policies are easy to understand. Illegal pharmacies will often sell your personal information.
– Check your pharmacy’s website for a physical address and a phone number you can call to talk to a pharmacist.
– Ask for your pharmacist’s license information. If he or she is U.S.-based, you can verify this information online.

Use the links below for more specific information.

– The National Association of Boards of Pharmacy has a listing of recommended sites ( ).
– The association’s not recommended sites are ( ).
– LegitScript’s recommended sites are ( ).
– If you’re looking into Canadian pharmacies, verify Canadian International Pharmacy Association certification ( ).
– To find a site recommended by the Canadian association, go ( ).
– PharmacyChecker’s reviews are ( ).

Source :

Dangerous Risk of hypertension


High blood pressure (hypertension) often occurs around us. Do you know the dangers that occur when you are up to hypertension? In this article will explain the risks that occur when attacked by hypertension. It would be better if we take precautions.

hypertension can quietly damage your body for years before symptoms develop. Left uncontrolled, you may wind up with a disability, a poor quality of life or even a fatal heart attack. Fortunately, with treatment and lifestyle changes, you can control your high blood pressure to reduce your risk of life-threatening complications.

Here’s a look at the complications high blood pressure can cause when it’s not effectively controlled.
Damage to your arteries

Healthy arteries are flexible, strong and elastic. Their inner lining is smooth so that blood flows freely, supplying vital organs and tissues with adequate nutrients and oxygen. If you have high blood pressure, the increased pressure of blood flowing through your arteries gradually can cause a variety of problems, including:

Artery damage and narrowing. High blood pressure can damage the cells of your arteries’ inner lining. That launches a cascade of events that make artery walls thick and stiff, a disease called arteriosclerosis (ahr-teer-e-o-skluh-ROE-sis), or hardening of the arteries. Fats from your diet enter your bloodstream, pass through the damaged cells and collect to start atherosclerosis (ath-ur-o-skluh-ROE-sis). These changes can affect arteries throughout your body, blocking blood flow to your heart, kidneys, brain, arms and legs. The damage can cause many problems, including chest pain (angina), heart attack, heart failure, kidney failure, stroke, blocked arteries in your legs or arms (peripheral artery disease), eye damage, and aneurysms.
Aneurysm. Over time, the constant pressure of blood moving through a weakened artery can cause a section of its wall to enlarge and form a bulge (aneurysm). An aneurysm (AN-yoo-riz-um) can potentially rupture and cause life-threatening internal bleeding. Aneurysms can form in any artery throughout your body, but they’re most common in the aorta, your body’s largest artery.

Damage to your heart

Your heart pumps blood to your entire body. Uncontrolled high blood pressure can damage your heart in a number of ways, such as:

Coronary artery disease. Coronary artery disease affects the arteries that supply blood to your heart muscle. Arteries narrowed by coronary artery disease don’t allow blood to flow freely through your arteries. When blood can’t flow freely to your heart, you can experience chest pain, a heart attack or irregular heart rhythms (arrhythmias).
Enlarged left heart. High blood pressure forces your heart to work harder than necessary in order to pump blood to the rest of your body. This causes the left ventricle to thicken or stiffen (left ventricular hypertrophy). These changes limit the ventricle’s ability to pump blood to your body. This condition increases your risk of heart attack, heart failure and sudden cardiac death.
Heart failure. Over time, the strain on your heart caused by high blood pressure can cause your heart muscle to weaken and work less efficiently. Eventually, your overwhelmed heart simply begins to wear out and fail. Damage from heart attacks adds to this problem.

Damage to your brain

Just like your heart, your brain depends on a nourishing blood supply to work properly and survive. But high blood pressure can cause several problems, including:

Transient ischemic attack (TIA). Sometimes called a ministroke, a transient ischemic (is-KEE-mik) attack is a brief, temporary disruption of blood supply to your brain. It’s often caused by atherosclerosis or a blood clot — both of which can arise from high blood pressure. A transient ischemic attack is often a warning that you’re at risk of a full-blown stroke.
Stroke. A stroke occurs when part of your brain is deprived of oxygen and nutrients, causing brain cells to die. Uncontrolled high blood pressure can lead to stroke by damaging and weakening your brain’s blood vessels, causing them to narrow, rupture or leak. High blood pressure can also cause blood clots to form in the arteries leading to your brain, blocking blood flow and potentially causing a stroke.
Dementia. Dementia is a brain disease resulting in problems with thinking, speaking, reasoning, memory, vision and movement. There are a number of causes of dementia. One cause, vascular dementia, can result from narrowing and blockage of the arteries that supply blood to the brain. It can also result from strokes caused by an interruption of blood flow to the brain. In either case, high blood pressure may be the culprit.
Mild cognitive impairment. Mild cognitive impairment is a transition stage between the changes in understanding and memory that come with aging and the more-serious problems caused by Alzheimer’s disease. Like dementia, it can result from blocked blood flow to the brain when high blood pressure damages arteries.

Damage to your kidneys

Your kidneys filter excess fluid and waste from your blood — a process that depends on healthy blood vessels. High blood pressure can injure both the blood vessels in and leading to your kidneys, causing several types of kidney disease (nephropathy). Having diabetes in addition to high blood pressure can worsen the damage.

Kidney failure. High blood pressure is one of the most common causes of kidney failure. That’s because it can damage both the large arteries leading to your kidneys and the tiny blood vessels (glomeruli) within the kidneys. Damage to either makes it so your kidneys can’t effectively filter waste from your blood. As a result, dangerous levels of fluid and waste can accumulate. You might ultimately require dialysis or kidney transplantation.
Kidney scarring (glomerulosclerosis). Glomerulosclerosis (gloe-mer-u-loe-skluh-ROE-sis) is a type of kidney damage caused by scarring of the glomeruli (gloe-MER-u-li). The glomeruli are tiny clusters of blood vessels within your kidneys that filter fluid and waste from your blood. Glomerulosclerosis can leave your kidneys unable to filter waste effectively, leading to kidney failure.
Kidney artery aneurysm. An aneurysm is a bulge in the wall of a blood vessel. When it occurs in an artery leading to the kidney, it’s known as a kidney (renal) artery aneurysm. One potential cause is atherosclerosis, which weakens and damages the artery wall. Over time, high blood pressure in a weakened artery can cause a section to enlarge and form a bulge — the aneurysm. Aneurysms can rupture and cause life-threatening internal bleeding.

Damage to your eyes

Tiny, delicate blood vessels supply blood to your eyes. Like other vessels, they, too, can be damaged by high blood pressure:

Eye blood vessel damage (retinopathy). High blood pressure can damage the vessels supplying blood to your retina, causing retinopathy. This condition can lead to bleeding in the eye, blurred vision and complete loss of vision. If you also have both diabetes and high blood pressure, you’re at an even greater risk.
Fluid buildup under the retina (choroidopathy). In this condition, fluid builds up under your retina because of a leaky blood vessel in a layer of blood vessels located under the retina. Choroidopathy (kor-oid-OP-uh-thee) can result in distorted vision or in some cases scarring that impairs vision.
Nerve damage (optic neuropathy). This is a condition in which blocked blood flow damages the optic nerve. It can kill nerve cells in your eyes, which may cause bleeding within your eye or vision loss.

Sexual dysfunction

Although the inability to have and maintain an erection (erectile dysfunction) becomes increasingly common in men as they reach age 50, it’s even more likely to occur if they have high blood pressure, too. Over time, high blood pressure damages the lining of your blood vessels and causes your arteries to harden and narrow (atherosclerosis), limiting blood flow. This means less blood is able to flow to your penis. For some men, the decreased blood flow makes it difficult to achieve and maintain erections — often referred to as erectile dysfunction. The problem is fairly common, especially among men who are not treating their high blood pressure.

Women may have sexual dysfunction as a side effect of high blood pressure, as well. High blood pressure can reduce blood flow to your vagina. For some women, this leads to a decrease in sexual desire or arousal, vaginal dryness, or difficulty achieving orgasm. Improving arousal and lubrication can help. Like men, women can experience anxiety and relationship issues due to sexual dysfunction.
Other possible dangers of high blood pressure

High blood pressure can also affect other areas of the body, leading to such problems as:

– Bone loss. High blood pressure can increase the amount of calcium that’s in your urine. That excessive elimination of calcium may lead to loss of bone density (osteoporosis), which in turn can lead to broken bones. The risk is especially increased in older women.
– Trouble sleeping. Obstructive sleep apnea — a condition in which your throat muscles relax causing you to snore loudly — occurs in more than half of those with high blood pressure. It’s now thought that high blood pressure itself may help trigger sleep apnea. Also, sleep deprivation resulting from sleep apnea can raise your blood pressure.

High blood pressure emergencies

High blood pressure is typically a chronic condition that gradually causes damage over the years. In some cases, though, blood pressure rises so quickly and severely that it becomes a medical emergency requiring immediate treatment, often with hospitalization.

In these situations, high blood pressure can cause:

  • Problems with your brain, marked by memory loss, personality changes, trouble concentrating, irritability or progressive loss of consciousness (encephalopathy)
  • Stroke
  • Severe damage to your body’s main artery (aortic dissection)
  • Seizures in pregnant women (preeclampsia or eclampsia)
  • Unstable chest pain (angina)
  • Heart attack
  • Sudden impaired pumping of the heart, leading to fluid backup in the lungs resulting in shortness of breath (pulmonary edema)
  • Sudden loss of kidney function (acute renal failure)

In most cases, these emergencies arise because high blood pressure hasn’t been adequately controlled.

Source :

Definition of hypertensive heart disease


What Is Hypertensive Heart Disease?

Hypertensive heart disease refers to heart conditions caused by high blood pressure.

A number of different heart disorders are caused by the heart working under increased pressure. Hypertensive heart disease includes heart failure, thickening of the heart muscle, coronary artery disease, and other conditions.

Hypertensive heart disease can cause serious health problems and is the leading cause of death from high blood pressure.

Types of Hypertensive Heart Disease

In general, the heart problems associated with high blood pressure relate to the heart’s arteries and muscles.
Narrowing of the Arteries

Coronary arteries transport blood to your heart muscle. When high blood pressure causes the blood vessels to become narrow, blood flow to the heart can slow or stop. This condition is known as coronary heart disease (CHD), also called coronary artery disease.

CHD makes it difficult for your heart to function and supply the rest of your organs with blood. It can put you at risk for heart attack from a blood clot that gets stuck in one of the narrowed arteries and cuts off blood flow to your heart.
Thickening and Enlargement of the Heart

High blood pressure makes it difficult for your heart to pump blood. Just like other muscles in your body, regular hard work causes your heart muscles to thicken and grow. This alters the way the heart functions. These changes usually happen in the main pumping chamber of the heart, the left ventricle. The condition is known as left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH).

CHD can cause LVH and vice versa: When you have CHD, your heart must work harder. If your heart is enlarged because of LVH, it can compress the coronary arteries.

Both CHD and LVH can lead to:

  • heart failure: your heart is unable to pump enough blood to the rest of your body
  • arrhythmia: your heart beats abnormally
  • ischemic heart disease: your heart doesn’t get enough oxygen
  • heart attack: blood flow to the heart is interrupted
  • sudden cardiac arrest: your heart suddenly stops working, you stop breathing, and you lose consciousness
  • stroke and sudden death

Who Is at Risk for Hypertensive Heart Disease?

Heart disease is the leading cause of death for both men and women in the United States. Over 610,000 Americans die from heart disease every year.

The main risk factor for hypertensive heart disease is high blood pressure. Your risk increases if:

  • you’re overweight
  • you don’t exercise enough
  • you smoke
  • you eat high-fat and high-cholesterol foods

You’re more prone to heart disease if it runs in your family. Men are more likely to get heart disease than women who have not gone through menopause. Men and postmenopausal women are equally at risk. Your risk for heart disease will increase as you age, regardless of your gender.

Identifying the Symptoms of Hypertensive Heart Disease
Symptoms vary depending on the severity of the condition and progression of the disease. You may experience no symptoms, or your symptoms may include:

– chest pain (angina)
– tightness or pressure in the chest
– shortness of breath
– fatigue
– pain in the neck, back, arms, or shoulders
– persistent cough
– loss of appetite
– foot or ankle swelling

You need emergency care if your heart is suddenly beating rapidly or irregularly. Seek emergency care immediately or call 911 if you faint or have severe pain in your chest.

Regular physical exams will indicate whether you suffer from high blood pressure. If you do have high blood pressure, take extra care to look out for symptoms of heart disease.

Testing and Diagnosis: When to See the Doctor

Your doctor will review your medical history, conduct a physical exam, and run lab tests to check your kidneys, sodium, potassium, and blood count.

One or more of the following tests may be used to help determine the cause of your symptoms:

  • Electrocardiogram: monitors and records your heart’s electrical activity. Your doctor will attach patches to your chest, legs, and arms. The results will be visible on a screen, and your doctor will interpret them.
  • echocardiogram: takes a detailed picture of your heart and using ultrasound.
  • coronary angiography: examines the flow of blood through your heart. A thin tube called a catheter is inserted through your groin or an artery in your arm and up into the heart.
  • exercise stress test: looks at how exercise affects your heart. You may be asked to pedal an exercise bike or walk on a treadmill.
  • nuclear stress test: examines the flow of blood into the heart. The test is usually conducted while you’re resting and exercising.

Treating Hypertensive Heart Disease

Treatment for hypertensive heart disease depends on the seriousness of your illness, your age, and your medical history.

Medications help your heart in a variety of ways. The main goals are to prevent your blood from clotting, improve the flow of your blood, and lower your cholesterol.

Examples of common heart disease medications include:

  • water pills to help lower blood pressure
  • nitrates to treat chest pain
  • statins to treat high cholesterol
  • beta-blockers to lower blood pressure and reduce the amount of oxygen used by the heart
  • aspirin to prevent blood clots

It’s important to always take all medications exactly as prescribed.

Surgeries and Devices
In more extreme cases, you may need surgery to increase blood flow to your heart.

If you need help regulating your heart’s rate or rhythm, your doctor may surgically implant a battery-operated device called a pacemaker in your chest or abdomen. A pacemaker produces electrical stimulation that causes cardiac muscle to contract. Implantation of a pacemaker is important and beneficial when cardiac muscle electrical activity is inappropriately slow or absent.

Cardioverter-defibrillators (ICDs) are implantable devices that can be used to treat serious, life-threatening cardiac arrhythmias.

Coronary artery bypass graft surgery (CABG) treats blocked coronary arteries. This is only done in severe CHD.

A heart transplant or other heart-assisting devices may be necessary if your condition is especially severe.

Long-Term Outlook
Recovering from hypertensive heart disease depends on the exact condition and its intensity. Lifestyle changes can help keep the condition from getting worse in some cases. In severe cases, medications and surgery may not be effective in controlling the disease.

Preventing Hypertensive Heart Disease
Monitoring and preventing your blood pressure from getting too high is one of the most important ways to prevent hypertensive heart disease.

Lowering your blood pressure and cholesterol by eating a healthy diet and monitoring stress levels are possibly the best ways to prevent heart problems.

Maintaining a healthy weight, getting adequate sleep, and exercising regularly are common lifestyle recommendations. Talk to your doctor about ways to improve your overall health.

Source :