Dangerous Risk of hypertension

dangers-of-salt-hypertension

High blood pressure (hypertension) often occurs around us. Do you know the dangers that occur when you are up to hypertension? In this article will explain the risks that occur when attacked by hypertension. It would be better if we take precautions.

hypertension can quietly damage your body for years before symptoms develop. Left uncontrolled, you may wind up with a disability, a poor quality of life or even a fatal heart attack. Fortunately, with treatment and lifestyle changes, you can control your high blood pressure to reduce your risk of life-threatening complications.

Here’s a look at the complications high blood pressure can cause when it’s not effectively controlled.
Damage to your arteries

Healthy arteries are flexible, strong and elastic. Their inner lining is smooth so that blood flows freely, supplying vital organs and tissues with adequate nutrients and oxygen. If you have high blood pressure, the increased pressure of blood flowing through your arteries gradually can cause a variety of problems, including:

Artery damage and narrowing. High blood pressure can damage the cells of your arteries’ inner lining. That launches a cascade of events that make artery walls thick and stiff, a disease called arteriosclerosis (ahr-teer-e-o-skluh-ROE-sis), or hardening of the arteries. Fats from your diet enter your bloodstream, pass through the damaged cells and collect to start atherosclerosis (ath-ur-o-skluh-ROE-sis). These changes can affect arteries throughout your body, blocking blood flow to your heart, kidneys, brain, arms and legs. The damage can cause many problems, including chest pain (angina), heart attack, heart failure, kidney failure, stroke, blocked arteries in your legs or arms (peripheral artery disease), eye damage, and aneurysms.
Aneurysm. Over time, the constant pressure of blood moving through a weakened artery can cause a section of its wall to enlarge and form a bulge (aneurysm). An aneurysm (AN-yoo-riz-um) can potentially rupture and cause life-threatening internal bleeding. Aneurysms can form in any artery throughout your body, but they’re most common in the aorta, your body’s largest artery.

Damage to your heart

Your heart pumps blood to your entire body. Uncontrolled high blood pressure can damage your heart in a number of ways, such as:

Coronary artery disease. Coronary artery disease affects the arteries that supply blood to your heart muscle. Arteries narrowed by coronary artery disease don’t allow blood to flow freely through your arteries. When blood can’t flow freely to your heart, you can experience chest pain, a heart attack or irregular heart rhythms (arrhythmias).
Enlarged left heart. High blood pressure forces your heart to work harder than necessary in order to pump blood to the rest of your body. This causes the left ventricle to thicken or stiffen (left ventricular hypertrophy). These changes limit the ventricle’s ability to pump blood to your body. This condition increases your risk of heart attack, heart failure and sudden cardiac death.
Heart failure. Over time, the strain on your heart caused by high blood pressure can cause your heart muscle to weaken and work less efficiently. Eventually, your overwhelmed heart simply begins to wear out and fail. Damage from heart attacks adds to this problem.

Damage to your brain

Just like your heart, your brain depends on a nourishing blood supply to work properly and survive. But high blood pressure can cause several problems, including:

Transient ischemic attack (TIA). Sometimes called a ministroke, a transient ischemic (is-KEE-mik) attack is a brief, temporary disruption of blood supply to your brain. It’s often caused by atherosclerosis or a blood clot — both of which can arise from high blood pressure. A transient ischemic attack is often a warning that you’re at risk of a full-blown stroke.
Stroke. A stroke occurs when part of your brain is deprived of oxygen and nutrients, causing brain cells to die. Uncontrolled high blood pressure can lead to stroke by damaging and weakening your brain’s blood vessels, causing them to narrow, rupture or leak. High blood pressure can also cause blood clots to form in the arteries leading to your brain, blocking blood flow and potentially causing a stroke.
Dementia. Dementia is a brain disease resulting in problems with thinking, speaking, reasoning, memory, vision and movement. There are a number of causes of dementia. One cause, vascular dementia, can result from narrowing and blockage of the arteries that supply blood to the brain. It can also result from strokes caused by an interruption of blood flow to the brain. In either case, high blood pressure may be the culprit.
Mild cognitive impairment. Mild cognitive impairment is a transition stage between the changes in understanding and memory that come with aging and the more-serious problems caused by Alzheimer’s disease. Like dementia, it can result from blocked blood flow to the brain when high blood pressure damages arteries.

Damage to your kidneys

Your kidneys filter excess fluid and waste from your blood — a process that depends on healthy blood vessels. High blood pressure can injure both the blood vessels in and leading to your kidneys, causing several types of kidney disease (nephropathy). Having diabetes in addition to high blood pressure can worsen the damage.

Kidney failure. High blood pressure is one of the most common causes of kidney failure. That’s because it can damage both the large arteries leading to your kidneys and the tiny blood vessels (glomeruli) within the kidneys. Damage to either makes it so your kidneys can’t effectively filter waste from your blood. As a result, dangerous levels of fluid and waste can accumulate. You might ultimately require dialysis or kidney transplantation.
Kidney scarring (glomerulosclerosis). Glomerulosclerosis (gloe-mer-u-loe-skluh-ROE-sis) is a type of kidney damage caused by scarring of the glomeruli (gloe-MER-u-li). The glomeruli are tiny clusters of blood vessels within your kidneys that filter fluid and waste from your blood. Glomerulosclerosis can leave your kidneys unable to filter waste effectively, leading to kidney failure.
Kidney artery aneurysm. An aneurysm is a bulge in the wall of a blood vessel. When it occurs in an artery leading to the kidney, it’s known as a kidney (renal) artery aneurysm. One potential cause is atherosclerosis, which weakens and damages the artery wall. Over time, high blood pressure in a weakened artery can cause a section to enlarge and form a bulge — the aneurysm. Aneurysms can rupture and cause life-threatening internal bleeding.

Damage to your eyes

Tiny, delicate blood vessels supply blood to your eyes. Like other vessels, they, too, can be damaged by high blood pressure:

Eye blood vessel damage (retinopathy). High blood pressure can damage the vessels supplying blood to your retina, causing retinopathy. This condition can lead to bleeding in the eye, blurred vision and complete loss of vision. If you also have both diabetes and high blood pressure, you’re at an even greater risk.
Fluid buildup under the retina (choroidopathy). In this condition, fluid builds up under your retina because of a leaky blood vessel in a layer of blood vessels located under the retina. Choroidopathy (kor-oid-OP-uh-thee) can result in distorted vision or in some cases scarring that impairs vision.
Nerve damage (optic neuropathy). This is a condition in which blocked blood flow damages the optic nerve. It can kill nerve cells in your eyes, which may cause bleeding within your eye or vision loss.

Sexual dysfunction

Although the inability to have and maintain an erection (erectile dysfunction) becomes increasingly common in men as they reach age 50, it’s even more likely to occur if they have high blood pressure, too. Over time, high blood pressure damages the lining of your blood vessels and causes your arteries to harden and narrow (atherosclerosis), limiting blood flow. This means less blood is able to flow to your penis. For some men, the decreased blood flow makes it difficult to achieve and maintain erections — often referred to as erectile dysfunction. The problem is fairly common, especially among men who are not treating their high blood pressure.

Women may have sexual dysfunction as a side effect of high blood pressure, as well. High blood pressure can reduce blood flow to your vagina. For some women, this leads to a decrease in sexual desire or arousal, vaginal dryness, or difficulty achieving orgasm. Improving arousal and lubrication can help. Like men, women can experience anxiety and relationship issues due to sexual dysfunction.
Other possible dangers of high blood pressure

High blood pressure can also affect other areas of the body, leading to such problems as:

– Bone loss. High blood pressure can increase the amount of calcium that’s in your urine. That excessive elimination of calcium may lead to loss of bone density (osteoporosis), which in turn can lead to broken bones. The risk is especially increased in older women.
– Trouble sleeping. Obstructive sleep apnea — a condition in which your throat muscles relax causing you to snore loudly — occurs in more than half of those with high blood pressure. It’s now thought that high blood pressure itself may help trigger sleep apnea. Also, sleep deprivation resulting from sleep apnea can raise your blood pressure.

High blood pressure emergencies

High blood pressure is typically a chronic condition that gradually causes damage over the years. In some cases, though, blood pressure rises so quickly and severely that it becomes a medical emergency requiring immediate treatment, often with hospitalization.

In these situations, high blood pressure can cause:

  • Problems with your brain, marked by memory loss, personality changes, trouble concentrating, irritability or progressive loss of consciousness (encephalopathy)
  • Stroke
  • Severe damage to your body’s main artery (aortic dissection)
  • Seizures in pregnant women (preeclampsia or eclampsia)
  • Unstable chest pain (angina)
  • Heart attack
  • Sudden impaired pumping of the heart, leading to fluid backup in the lungs resulting in shortness of breath (pulmonary edema)
  • Sudden loss of kidney function (acute renal failure)

In most cases, these emergencies arise because high blood pressure hasn’t been adequately controlled.

Source : http://www.mayoclinic.org

Definition of hypertensive heart disease

Hypertensive-Heart-Disease-Symptoms-Causes-and-Treatment

What Is Hypertensive Heart Disease?

Hypertensive heart disease refers to heart conditions caused by high blood pressure.

A number of different heart disorders are caused by the heart working under increased pressure. Hypertensive heart disease includes heart failure, thickening of the heart muscle, coronary artery disease, and other conditions.

Hypertensive heart disease can cause serious health problems and is the leading cause of death from high blood pressure.

Types of Hypertensive Heart Disease

In general, the heart problems associated with high blood pressure relate to the heart’s arteries and muscles.
Narrowing of the Arteries

Coronary arteries transport blood to your heart muscle. When high blood pressure causes the blood vessels to become narrow, blood flow to the heart can slow or stop. This condition is known as coronary heart disease (CHD), also called coronary artery disease.

CHD makes it difficult for your heart to function and supply the rest of your organs with blood. It can put you at risk for heart attack from a blood clot that gets stuck in one of the narrowed arteries and cuts off blood flow to your heart.
Thickening and Enlargement of the Heart

High blood pressure makes it difficult for your heart to pump blood. Just like other muscles in your body, regular hard work causes your heart muscles to thicken and grow. This alters the way the heart functions. These changes usually happen in the main pumping chamber of the heart, the left ventricle. The condition is known as left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH).

CHD can cause LVH and vice versa: When you have CHD, your heart must work harder. If your heart is enlarged because of LVH, it can compress the coronary arteries.
Complications

Both CHD and LVH can lead to:

  • heart failure: your heart is unable to pump enough blood to the rest of your body
  • arrhythmia: your heart beats abnormally
  • ischemic heart disease: your heart doesn’t get enough oxygen
  • heart attack: blood flow to the heart is interrupted
  • sudden cardiac arrest: your heart suddenly stops working, you stop breathing, and you lose consciousness
  • stroke and sudden death

Who Is at Risk for Hypertensive Heart Disease?

Heart disease is the leading cause of death for both men and women in the United States. Over 610,000 Americans die from heart disease every year.

The main risk factor for hypertensive heart disease is high blood pressure. Your risk increases if:

  • you’re overweight
  • you don’t exercise enough
  • you smoke
  • you eat high-fat and high-cholesterol foods

You’re more prone to heart disease if it runs in your family. Men are more likely to get heart disease than women who have not gone through menopause. Men and postmenopausal women are equally at risk. Your risk for heart disease will increase as you age, regardless of your gender.

Identifying the Symptoms of Hypertensive Heart Disease
Symptoms vary depending on the severity of the condition and progression of the disease. You may experience no symptoms, or your symptoms may include:

– chest pain (angina)
– tightness or pressure in the chest
– shortness of breath
– fatigue
– pain in the neck, back, arms, or shoulders
– persistent cough
– loss of appetite
– foot or ankle swelling

You need emergency care if your heart is suddenly beating rapidly or irregularly. Seek emergency care immediately or call 911 if you faint or have severe pain in your chest.

Regular physical exams will indicate whether you suffer from high blood pressure. If you do have high blood pressure, take extra care to look out for symptoms of heart disease.

Testing and Diagnosis: When to See the Doctor

Your doctor will review your medical history, conduct a physical exam, and run lab tests to check your kidneys, sodium, potassium, and blood count.

One or more of the following tests may be used to help determine the cause of your symptoms:

  • Electrocardiogram: monitors and records your heart’s electrical activity. Your doctor will attach patches to your chest, legs, and arms. The results will be visible on a screen, and your doctor will interpret them.
  • echocardiogram: takes a detailed picture of your heart and using ultrasound.
  • coronary angiography: examines the flow of blood through your heart. A thin tube called a catheter is inserted through your groin or an artery in your arm and up into the heart.
  • exercise stress test: looks at how exercise affects your heart. You may be asked to pedal an exercise bike or walk on a treadmill.
  • nuclear stress test: examines the flow of blood into the heart. The test is usually conducted while you’re resting and exercising.

Treating Hypertensive Heart Disease

Treatment for hypertensive heart disease depends on the seriousness of your illness, your age, and your medical history.

Medication
Medications help your heart in a variety of ways. The main goals are to prevent your blood from clotting, improve the flow of your blood, and lower your cholesterol.

Examples of common heart disease medications include:

  • water pills to help lower blood pressure
  • nitrates to treat chest pain
  • statins to treat high cholesterol
  • beta-blockers to lower blood pressure and reduce the amount of oxygen used by the heart
  • aspirin to prevent blood clots

It’s important to always take all medications exactly as prescribed.

Surgeries and Devices
In more extreme cases, you may need surgery to increase blood flow to your heart.

If you need help regulating your heart’s rate or rhythm, your doctor may surgically implant a battery-operated device called a pacemaker in your chest or abdomen. A pacemaker produces electrical stimulation that causes cardiac muscle to contract. Implantation of a pacemaker is important and beneficial when cardiac muscle electrical activity is inappropriately slow or absent.

Cardioverter-defibrillators (ICDs) are implantable devices that can be used to treat serious, life-threatening cardiac arrhythmias.

Coronary artery bypass graft surgery (CABG) treats blocked coronary arteries. This is only done in severe CHD.

A heart transplant or other heart-assisting devices may be necessary if your condition is especially severe.

Long-Term Outlook
Recovering from hypertensive heart disease depends on the exact condition and its intensity. Lifestyle changes can help keep the condition from getting worse in some cases. In severe cases, medications and surgery may not be effective in controlling the disease.

Preventing Hypertensive Heart Disease
Monitoring and preventing your blood pressure from getting too high is one of the most important ways to prevent hypertensive heart disease.

Lowering your blood pressure and cholesterol by eating a healthy diet and monitoring stress levels are possibly the best ways to prevent heart problems.

Maintaining a healthy weight, getting adequate sleep, and exercising regularly are common lifestyle recommendations. Talk to your doctor about ways to improve your overall health.

Source : http://www.healthline.com